Honey has been used as a folk medicine since 2100 BC
however, mad honey is diﬀerent from normal natural or commercially available honey as it is contaminated with grayanotoxins, which leads tointoxication/poisoning upon consumption. Grayanotoxin is generally found in Rhododendron genus (family: Ericaceae) and is extracted by bees from nectar and pollens of flowers.
Mad honey has been commonly used as an aphrodisiac (sexual stimulant), in alternative therapy for gastrointestinal disorders (peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia, and gastritis), and for hypertension for a long time. Grayanotoxin acts onsodium ion channels and muscarinic receptors, leading to cardiac disorders (hypotension and diﬀerent rhythm disorders including bradycardia, bradydysrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, nodal rhythm,atrioventricular block, and complete atrioventricular block) and respiratory depression. People may also exhibit any one symptom out of or combination of dizziness, blurred vision, diplopia, nausea, vomiting,vertigo, headache, sweating/excessive perspiration, extremity paresthesia, impaired consciousness,convulsion, hypersalivation, ataxia, inability to stand, and general weakness.